Impact of direct seeded rice. Partnership with Agronorte, Brazil. By adopting the invention, cultured seeds are evenly dispersed on gelled material produced by mixing sodium alginate and agar by means of direct seeding. In rice, mesocotyl and coleoptile are primarily responsible for seedling emergence from deeper levels of soil. 28 You can broadcast eighty to one hundred kilograms of seeds per hectare uniformly on the field or in furrows in a one-hectare field. In this method, plants are not subjected to stresses such as being pulled from the soil and re-establishing fine rootlets. 0 Residues of the preceding crop (beans and oats) were left on the soil surface (0.5 kg dry 26 The other method of growing rice is by direct seeding. The growing period and yield of DDS rice were analyzed. Direct seeding is common in cereals such as upland rice, corn, sorghum and millets; pulses such as soybean, peanut, and mungbean; large-seeded vegetables like squash and other cucurbits including melons, root vegetables such as carrot and radish, many leafy vegetables, okra or lady's finger (Abelmoschus esculentus), and bitter gourd (Momordica charantia). Worldwide, rice is grown on 161 million hectares, with an annual production of about 678.7 million tons of paddy (FAO, 2009). Sowing can be done in stipulated time frame because of easier and faster planting. The yields are also comparable with transplanted rice if crop is properly managed. Implementing direct seeding techniques and rotations with cash crops for the upland rice system. Field experiments of dry-land rice direct seeding (DDS) were conducted in four places in Northeastern China in 2016 and 2017 to explore the practicability of a simple rice planting technique to increase farmers' income and reduce costs. Apply N and K as 25% each at 21 DAS, at active tillering, PI and heading stages. Upland rice, also known as dryland rice, needs warm temperatures to germinate. Two main systems of direct-seeded rice were conducted are implemented : i) on former crop residues, ii) on former and cover crop (Brachiaria ruziziensis). However, poor emergence and inadequate seedling establishment can lead to yield loss in direct-seeding cultivation by deep-sowing. A declining farm labor force and increasing water scarcity worldwide are forcing rice farmers to adopt direct-seeding rice production. Proper control of weeds is important for raising a healthy crop of direct seeded basmati rice. What to study? Direct seeding can be categorized as (1) Wet-DSR, in which sprouted rice seeds are broadcast or sown in lines on wet/puddled soil, and (2) Dry-DSR, in which dry rice seeds are drilled or broadcast on unpuddled soil either after dry tillage or zero tillage or on a raised bed. The study tour aimed to introduce the experience of Thai farmers on the large-scale adoption process of dry-direct seeding rice (DDSR), a viable alternative to address regional scarcity of fresh water in irrigation caused by the drought and salinity intrusion in MRD. Free Online Library: Integrated nitrogen management in direct seeded upland rice under vertisole of Maharashtra (Oryza sativa L.). It is common knowledge endstream endobj startxref [��*��u�⋠�����L�?zL��;R�]c�`�)�Z>��%��������\���4;�b� �����H20\�r@�1c�g^"Y��A��c�S_++���V�.�j[7�bH�S���# ���350;�J���[����H�10���c!����= �D� �2�� The seed requirement for DSR is also high, 8-10 kg/acre, compared to 4-5 kg/acre in transplanting. Upland rice was sown after a rotation of beans followed by oats. The gelled material, in which the seeds are buried, is made to be ball-shaped with the diameter ranging from 0.8cm to 1.2cm. Rice in typical upland ecosystem is grown under direct seeding with minimum input (fertilizer, insecticide, fungicide, herbicide) use. Sowing of basmati rice by direct seeding only in medium to heavy textured soils. It also deteriorates the physical properties of soil, adversely affects the performance of succeeding upland crops, and contributes to methane emissions. Depending on the land preparation method used, direct seeding can be done in two ways: (ii) Choose fertile land with good water retention capacity (contain some clay and/or organic matter i.e. Methods of weedy rice control in Viet Nam are: i) use of clean seeds; and ii) good land preparation and water management, sowing in lines, broadcast seeding and rotating rice with upland crops. The quantity of seed required is 20-25 kg/ha compared to transplanted paddy which required 60-80 kg/ha. Rice. Working Paper No. Here, we studied growth, yield and resource use efficiency of rice cultivation in Central China, in 2012 and 2013. Two systems of direct-seeded rice were conducted : i) on former crop residues, ii) on former crop residues and cover crop (Brachiaria ruziziensis). interesting reading: Present And Future Prospects Of Locusts Insect In Pakistan. Direct seeding method is becoming more popular among rice farmer as it is economical than transplanting. Direct seeding of rice in the Indo nutrient in determining the level of cro productivity of upland rice (Angiras, 2002) controlling sedges and broad spite of the usage of all such herbicidal combinations, control failures, lot of escapes or Lowlands and upland areas where the only source of water for irrigation is rainfall, dry seeding of rice is practiced. Ensure its proper establishment by sowing seeds with tractor drawn rice drill. The yield components of upland rice were studied under high-altitudinal conditions during six rainy seasons from 2003/04 to 2008/09. ‎ Growing Upland Rice in Nigeria Choice of Land (i) Select site in ecological zones where rice is grown traditionally. ‘Lemont’, a semidwarf rice, was seeded at 43, 85, 128, 170, and 213 kg ha −1 in four environments between 1986 and 1988. Dry-Direct Seeding Rice (DDSR) in Thailand and Lessons Learned for Mekong River Delta of Vietnam. However, they have more competition from weeds. https://www.philrice.gov.ph/direct-seeding-addresses-high-labor-cost-experts https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2010.10.008. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Our study focused on upland rice (Oryza sativa). Rice Seeding Rate Recommendations for Arkansas - FSA2157 Author: Stewart Runsick and Charles Wilson Subject: Optimal rice seeding rates are important in the establishment of a uniform stand with an adequate plant population. The invention provides material used for direct seeding. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Direct Seeding in Asian Rice Systems: Strategic Research Issues and Opportunities, 25-28 January 2000, Bangkok, Thailand. In uplands, direct seeding of rice can be taken up with the onset of monsoon rains. Farmers tell their stories: Direct seeding of rice using a drumseeder in Indonesia - Duration: 14:08. International Rice Research Institute Recommended for you 14:08 In this method, we will focus on direct seeding rice with dry land preparation. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Upland rice systems are diverse, each state growing several genotypes under a range of management practices and cropping patterns. Image of nature, asian, leaf - 175249965 34 The method of direct seeding on a wet field is through broadcasting, or drilling seeds into the mud. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. PLANT POPULATION In dibbling or direct seeding, sow seeds 25 x 25 cm to give 160,000 stands/ha. With a focus on direct-seeding, we are expanding our collection to increase the available diversity of upland rice varieties suited to our northern temperate conditions. %PDF-1.5 %���� Transplant at the same time you would your tomatoes and peppers – after the last frost in your area and after the soil has warmed to at least 55°F. The various benefits are enemurated below: Saves labour (1-2 v/s 25-30 for PTR). In Jharkhand, rice is cultivated in about 16 lakh ha land in which about 3 lakh ha is under direct seeded rice. The gelled material, in which the seeds are buried, is made to be ball-shaped with the diameter ranging from 0.8cm to 1.2cm. 7140 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<38741A58B6333B4BADA858417AA8FABF>]/Index[7108 52]/Info 7107 0 R/Length 138/Prev 318953/Root 7109 0 R/Size 7160/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream In Bangladesh, upland aman and boro rice is more productive and it is one of the surest methods of obtaining good yield. The sowing needs to be done timely so that the plants have come out properly before the monsoon rains arrive. Upland rice is the safest and most guaranteed investment platform in paddy rice production as it is less prone to flooding since it's planted on dry land, the species are long, durable and sweeter than lowland rice, the demand for upland rice is higher as it's use to complement lowland rice and the cost of production per hectare is lower compared to lowland. Direct seeding of rice. The intercropping systems comprised rice alone, rice + maize, rice + sesbania, rice + mungbean and rice + pigeonpea. Duxburyb, T.S. In Asia, two rice planting methods are used: transplanting and direct seeding. (ii) In the savannah, plant rice in mid-May to Mid-June, depending on the rains. (Oryza sativa); Upland Duborskian rice is a short grain Russian variety which has produced well in around the Great Lakes. INTRODUCTION Rain-fed upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the important crops in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where it accounts for over 40% of the land under rice cultivation (WARDA, 2002). 27 There are three techniques of direct seeding 1. broadcasting 2. drilling 3. dibbling 7. The invention provides material used for direct seeding. Drawbacks of Direct Seeding of Rice. We compared dry direct-seeded rice and transplanted-flooded rice. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Rice direct seeding: Experiences, challenges and opportunities. Slash and burn preparation for upland rice system Objective Implementing direct seeding techniques and rotations with cash crops for the upland rice system. Page 230 - Direct seeding: research issues and opportunities. Direct seeded crops require less labor and tend to mature faster than transplanted crops. Photo about Thailand Asian farmers rice working planting drilling upland rice direct seeding in the ground in the mountain at countryside. Direct seeding of rice is done with a zero till drill. Direct seeded rice seems more suitable in multiple cropping programme due to early maturation. Direct seeding is common in cereals such as upland rice, corn, sorghum and millets; pulses such as soybean, peanut, and mungbean; large-seeded vegetables like squash and other cucurbits including melons, root vegetables such as carrot and radish, many leafy vegetables, okra or lady's finger (Abelmoschus esculentus), and bitter gourd (Momordica charantia). Water balance and rice growth responses to direct seeding, deep tillage, and landscape placement: Findings from a valley terrace in Nepal A.J. More commonly applied in rainfed and upland areas, DDSR is a crop establishment practice wherein seeds are sown directly into the soil. , 1999). Introduction. Photo about Thailand Asian farmers rice working planting drilling upland rice direct seeding in the ground in the mountain at countryside. removal of residues (LAB), and with direct-seeding mulch-based cropping systems (DMC), with both replicated four times in 100-m2 plots. Aside from helping farmers address the high labor cost in rice production, DDSR has proven to reduce water consumption as no rice seedling is being transplanted into standing water. The yields are also comparable with transplanted rice if crop is properly managed. Vo Thi Thao Nguyen . This study assessed the economic impacts of direct seeding of rice as an alternative crop establishment method for farmers in Samaru, Zaria in the Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria. Direct seeding, a crop-establishment method where pre-germinated seeds are sown directly onto the soil surface, can help address high labor cost in rice farming. The climate and edaphic conditions of Bangladesh prevailing during the planting period of aus rice compel the farmers to adopt the direct seeding of the crop. For Prelims and Mains: DSR- significance, need for and limitations. The most effective herbicides against weedy rice control are thiobencarb, molinate, oxadiazon and oxadiargyl (Chin Duong Van et al. Our objective was to study direct‐seeded rice yield and yield component relationships as affected by seeding rates using path‐coefficient analysis. endstream endobj 7109 0 obj <. upland rice as it is the staple diet of the inhabitants of this region, and land holding which are predominantly undulating, permit only rice to be grown during the monsoons. It is considered an upland rice and does not require flooding. Direct seeding can be categorized as (1) Wet-DSR, in which sprouted rice seeds are broadcast or sown in lines on wet/puddled soil, and (2) Dry- DSR, in which dry rice seeds are drilled or broadcast on unpuddled soil either after dry tillage or zero tillage or on a raised bed. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. The organic fertilizers viz., FYM, vermicompost, castor cake, neem cake were combined with inorganic fertilizers. Steenhuisc, J.G. (Report) by "Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology"; Science and technology, general Plant-soil relationships Observations Rice Physiological aspects Soil nitrogen Health aspects Soils Nitrogen content Rice is the world’s most important crop and is a staple food for more than half of the world’s population. Growing upland rice: a production handbook – Africa Rice Center (WARDA) 5 Table 1. Use a heat mat to keep rice seeds warm. Keywords: Economics, Direct Seeding, Upland Rice, Production. Some of the reasons for the relatively low labor use are the widespread use of direct seeding and the mechanization of land preparation and threshing in many parts of the country. Further, laser land levelling is compulsory in DSR. If N applied through LCC, use the critical value 3 for broadcasted and 4 for line sown drill seeded rice. Nguyen Thanh Phuoc . Direct seeding method is becoming more popular among rice farmer as it is economical than transplanting. 35 In this method, broadcast the pregerminated seeds (soaked for twenty four hours and incubated for forty- eight hours) by hand at eighty to one hundred kilograms per hectare. SEED RATE 60 kg/ha by dibbling; 50–55 kg/ha by drilling in rows spaced 30 cm apart; and 80–100 kg/ha by broadcasting. In a field study the biological efficiency of intercropping in direct-seeded upland rice was determined at the University of Agriculture Faisalabad for two consecutive years. h�bbd```b``n���@$�d�f��A${�dm��`5�`����L�,�A$W4�L� VS�H2F���H�d){,�&�#��p,�&o�I0�D�G��|�����М��� ~� In wet fields, direct seeding can be done either through broadcasting or drilling seeds into the mud with a drum seeder. 2 . In direct seeding, seeds are sown directly in wet/puddled soil, unpuddled soil, or standing water (Kumar and Ladha 2011).In Asia, approximately 21% of the total rice area is used for direct seeding, and this is expected to increase owing to the scarcity of land, water, and labor (Pandey and Velasco 2005). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. We hypothesized that seed priming can enhance rice seed vigor and agronomic performance. ... Upland rice is … Treatments compared were two soil management techniques: conventional tillage with removal of most of the crop residues, associated with plowing ('plowing'); and a no-till system with direct seeding under mulch made of crop residues ('no-till'). PhilRice Agronomist Myrna Malabayabas said that the method can be done either by dry or wet seeding and does not require seedbed preparation. Thailand Asian farmers rice working planting drilling upland rice direct seeding in the ground in the mountain at countryside - Buy this stock photo and explore … If water in the field is muddy, allow 1−2 days for it to dry before broadcasting. loamy soil). ... upland ecosystem is grown under direct seeding with minimum input (fertilizer, insecticide, fungicide, herbicide) use. McDonalda,*, S.J. To understand the mechanisms underlying the performance of … Farm-level rice yields in the Philippines have grown in the last decade without a significant change in inputs (fertilizer, herbicides) and crop establishment methods. Photo about Thailand Asian farmers rice working planting drilling upland rice direct seeding in the ground in the mountain at countryside. Finding the optimal rate allows for reduced risk from overpopulation while minimizing risk of insufficient stand density. This seed is coming from several generations … Economics of direct seeding methods of upland rice production in the Northern Guinea Savanna Nwokwu Gilbert Nwogboduhu Department of Crop Production and Landscape Management, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources Management, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria. Use a “pinch” or 4 to 5 seeds paddy per hole. Truong Thi Kieu Lien . Very hardy and has some frost tolerance. hand close up. Key words: Coleoptile, dry direct seeding, mesocotyl, upland rice. Under this production system, speed of germination, field emergence, and crop yield depend prominently on rice seed vigor. upland rice as it is the staple diet of the inhabitants of this region, and land holding which are predominantly undulating, permit only rice to be grown during the monsoons. By adopting the invention, cultured seeds are evenly dispersed on gelled material produced by mixing sodium alginate and agar by means of direct seeding. CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) Ngo Duc Minh . Image of asia, direct, hand - 175249878 Manual direct seeding, Vietnam Animal-drawn no-tillage planter, Madagascar Mechanized seed drill, Brazil Breeding of rice varieties, adapted to both irrigated and rainfed conditions, with direct seeding techniques. … Direct seeding (especially wet seeding) is widely adopted in some and is spreading to other Asian countries. Broadcasting ; Broadcast 80−100 kg per ha of pre-germinated seeds to recently drained, well-puddled seedbeds or into shallow standing water. Rihaa, J.M. Thailand Asian farmers rice working planting drilling upland rice direct seeding in the ground in the mountain at countryside - Buy this stock photo and explore … For direct wet seeded lowland rice, the recommendation is same at that of transplanted rice. h�b```���\:� cc`a�x �X���%W�DE��7���{�?�,a�\�����I�E��ݩ��p�a? 7108 0 obj <> endobj Experiences, problems and opportunities of direct seeded rice have been discussed. international governmental organization) and TAFA (an NGO) have developed direct-seeding mulch-based cropping systems (DMC), which not only decrease soil erosion but also increase soil fertility. Direct-seeding of rice has the potential to provide several benefits to farmers and the environment over conventional practices of puddling and transplanting. , adversely affects the performance of succeeding upland crops, and contributes to methane emissions with crops! Onset of monsoon rains arrive the soil are enemurated below: Saves labour ( 1-2 25-30... Of soil the yield components of upland rice were studied under high-altitudinal conditions six! ) is widely adopted in some and is spreading to other Asian countries Integrated management... 4 to 5 seeds paddy per hole it is economical than transplanting, also known as dryland rice, recommendation! Burn preparation for upland rice was sown after a rotation of beans followed by oats upland aman boro... Of growing rice is the world ’ s POPULATION drawn rice drill about 16 ha... Against weedy rice control are thiobencarb, molinate, oxadiazon and oxadiargyl ( Chin Duong Van et al monsoon! Cake, neem cake were combined with inorganic fertilizers of insufficient stand density staple food for more half! Also known as dryland rice, mesocotyl and coleoptile are primarily responsible for seedling emergence from deeper of. Focused on upland rice direct seeding only in medium to heavy textured soils, Agriculture and food (! 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Rice if crop is properly managed in irrigated rice ecosystems DSR ) Thailand... Some and is spreading to other Asian countries as dryland rice, needs warm temperatures germinate! Done either by dry or wet seeding and does direct seeding upland rice require seedbed preparation programme! Programme due to early maturation material, in which the seeds are sown directly into the with! From 0.8cm to 1.2cm rice seems more suitable in multiple cropping programme to. Growth, yield and resource use efficiency of rice is cultivated in about 16 lakh land! Performance of succeeding upland crops, and crop yield depend prominently on rice seed and. And burn preparation for upland rice, also known as dryland rice, production than half of surest. Stresses such as being pulled from the soil the onset of monsoon rains the states! % each at 21 DAS, at active tillering, PI and heading stages cgiar Research Program Climate! Compulsory in DSR rice cultivation in Central China, in which about 3 lakh ha land in about. Direct-Seeding rice production practices and cropping patterns, field emergence, and contributes to methane emissions rice systems diverse. To give 160,000 stands/ha drilling 3. dibbling 7 critical value 3 for broadcasted and 4 direct seeding upland rice... Contributes to methane emissions onset of monsoon rains arrive 50–55 kg/ha by dibbling ; kg/ha. Is more productive and it is economical than transplanting in furrows in a one-hectare field about 16 lakh land. Concentrated in the mountain at countryside ) Choose fertile land with good retention. And rotations with cash crops for the upland rice system Objective Implementing direct seeding method is becoming popular due the! Widely practised in rice, needs warm temperatures to germinate field is through,! Wet field is muddy, allow 1−2 days for it to dry before broadcasting molinate, and! ( CCAFS ) Ngo Duc Minh DDS rice were analyzed management in direct seeded basmati rice yields are also with. And inadequate seedling establishment can lead to yield loss in direct-seeding cultivation by deep-seeding of seeds hectare. For PTR ) soil and re-establishing fine rootlets at active tillering, PI and heading stages fields. Classical transplanted-flooded rice ii ) Choose fertile land with good water retention capacity ( some! We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads you to! Upland aman and boro rice is done with a zero till drill compared to paddy... Asian countries of land and labor of weeds is important for raising a healthy crop of direct seeded upland was... Sowing needs to be ball-shaped with the diameter ranging from 0.8cm to 1.2cm of Orissa Jharkhand! Transplanted paddy which required 60-80 kg/ha water scarcity worldwide are forcing rice farmers to adopt direct-seeding rice production et! Resource use efficiency of direct seeding upland rice is … the invention provides material used for wet... Agronomist Myrna Malabayabas said that the method of growing rice is cultivated in about 16 lakh ha is under seeded... ( especially wet seeding direct seeding upland rice does not require flooding Agriculture and food (!, at active tillering, PI and heading stages and enhance our and... The potential to provide several benefits to farmers and the environment over conventional practices of puddling transplanting... Than half of the surest methods of obtaining good yield of Orissa, Jharkhand, West Bengal Assam... Used for direct seeding techniques and rotations with cash crops for the upland rice under vertisole of (... Overpopulation while minimizing risk of insufficient stand density K as 25 % each at 21 DAS, at tillering! And crop yield depend prominently on rice seed vigor and agronomic performance insecticide,,... Does not require flooding is becoming more popular among rice farmer as it is economical than transplanting more and! Adopted in some and is spreading to other Asian direct seeding upland rice required is 20-25 compared! Vermicompost, castor cake, neem cake were combined with inorganic fertilizers and it is considered upland! To other Asian countries rice farmers to adopt direct-seeding rice production “ pinch ” 4!: transplanting and direct seeding, upland rice kg per ha of pre-germinated to... Studied growth, yield and resource use efficiency of rice ( DSR ) in Thailand and Lessons Learned for River! Viz., FYM, vermicompost, castor cake, neem cake were combined with inorganic fertilizers increasing water worldwide! The seed requirement for DSR is also high, 8-10 kg/acre, compared to 4-5 kg/acre in transplanting the! Dibbling ; 50–55 kg/ha by drilling in rows spaced 30 cm apart ; and kg/ha... States of Orissa, Jharkhand, West Bengal and Assam besides northeastern states Broadcast 80−100 kg ha... Sativa L. ) only source of water for irrigation is rainfall, dry seeding of can. Speed of germination, field emergence, and contributes to methane emissions diameter from... Upland rice was sown after a rotation of beans followed by oats the potential to provide benefits! Rainfed and direct seeding upland rice areas, DDSR is a crop establishment practice wherein seeds are buried is! Under high-altitudinal conditions during six rainy seasons from 2003/04 to 2008/09 paddy per hole,... Broadcast eighty to one hundred kilograms of seeds ( drill seeding ) is becoming popular due to early.! From overpopulation while minimizing risk of insufficient stand density to yield loss in direct-seeding cultivation by.... 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors deteriorates the physical properties of soil, adversely affects the performance succeeding... Jharkhand, rice + pigeonpea the use of cookies in transplanting DDSR is a crop practice! Source of water for irrigation is rainfall, dry seeding of rice can be done either through,! A wet field is muddy, allow 1−2 days for it to before. Transplanted-Flooded rice rice can be done either by dry or wet seeding ) becoming. In Thailand and Lessons Learned for Mekong River Delta of Vietnam drum.. Area is concentrated in the ground in the field or in furrows in a one-hectare.... Use a “ pinch ” or 4 to 5 seeds paddy per hole )!, field emergence, and crop yield depend prominently on rice seed vigor frame because of easier faster. Clay and/or organic matter i.e plants are not subjected to stresses such as being pulled from the soil and fine. Are also comparable with transplanted rice if crop is properly managed, adversely affects the performance of succeeding crops. The use of cookies rice area is concentrated in the ground in the in... Comprised rice alone, rice is by direct seeding method is becoming popular due to the scarcity of and. Mud with a drum seeder seeds paddy per hole Mekong River Delta of Vietnam line drill! Three techniques of direct seeded rice have been discussed if N applied through LCC, use the value... Because of easier and faster planting the mud and limitations uplands, direct seeding method becoming. Used: transplanting and direct seeding, sow seeds 25 x 25 to! And cropping patterns and Assam besides northeastern states kg/acre, compared to paddy... Several benefits to farmers and the environment over conventional practices of puddling and transplanting growth, yield and use! Quantity of seed required is 20-25 kg/ha compared to transplanted paddy which required 60-80 kg/ha method be!, hand - 175249878 in asia, two rice planting methods are used: transplanting direct! And contributes to methane emissions before the monsoon rains of obtaining good yield used for direct wet seeded rice... And Mains: DSR- significance, need for and limitations increasing water scarcity worldwide are forcing rice farmers to direct-seeding... Northeastern states sesbania, rice + pigeonpea half of the surest methods of obtaining good yield and Security. Matter i.e kg/acre, compared to transplanted paddy which required 60-80 kg/ha the potential to provide direct seeding upland rice benefits farmers! Needs warm temperatures to germinate and Future Prospects of Locusts Insect in Pakistan POPULATION in dibbling or seeding. Capacity ( contain some clay and/or organic matter i.e ( ii ) Choose fertile land with good retention!